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Oral health problems is toxic to your body, warns dentists
Gum disease, a condition where the structures that support the teeth are weakened through infection is the cause of 80% of tooth loss in individuals over the age of 35. More importantly still, gum disease can have serious knock-on effects in terms of one’s general health.
This warning comes from Dr Hugo Lourens, a dentist at the Medicross family medical and dental centre in Lorraine Gardens, Port Elizabeth. “Periodontal disease, or gum disease as it is commonly known, is essentially infection caused by bacteria in the mouth. As your body tries to fight the infection, it triggers a chronic inflammatory response putting the immune system under pressure.”
“This can have serious health implications,” notes Dr Lourens. “The bacteria that are constantly feeding into your bloodstream can increase the chances of damage to your heart valves and your risk of heart disease and stroke.”
• What is gum disease?
According to Dr Ameet Hira, a dentist at Medicross Randburg, periodontal disease is caused by a build up of plaque and tartar between the teeth, which attracts bacteria that causes infection on the edges of the gums.
“Over time, the infection spreads lower and deeper until it settles in the roots and loosens the gums from the teeth. This in turn forms periodontal ‘pockets’ that fill with matter and bacteria that causes further deterioration and erosion of the bone in which the teeth are embedded. As a result, the support base for your teeth become so eroded that the teeth start to shift, loosen and eventually fall out,” Dr Hira explains.
The first stage of periodontal disease is inflammation of the gums, known as gingivitis, and this is caused by poor dental hygiene. If gingivitis goes undetected or is left untreated, it eventually leads to periodontal disease.
The importance of regular check-ups
Dr Lourens says the importance of regular dental check-ups cannot be overemphasised.
“It is impossible for you to clean your teeth to the required standard at home. Only a dentist or oral hygienist has the equipment to deep clean, scrape your teeth and remove tartar and plaque.”
“In addition, your dentist has the expertise to recognise early signs of gingivitis and can ensure that it is treated before the infection spreads further.”
How to prevent gum disease
In order to reduce your risk of developing periodontal disease, you should follow a sensible diet, rigorous dental hygiene routine and schedule regular dental check-ups.
Dr Hira explains: “Ensure that your diet is well-balanced and rich in nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Avoid junk and sugary foods such as sweets, lollipops, pies, cakes and crisps, as the sugars in these foods are quickly converted into enamel-eroding acids by the enzymes in your mouth.”
Even more healthy foods such as fresh or dried fruit, and acidic foods, such as tomatoes or citrus fruit, increase your risk of developing gingivitis or periodontal disease.
“Ideally you should brush your teeth soon after eating any of these foods. Beverages also contain sugar, especially carbonated drinks, so you should rather replace these with fresh water or plain mineral water as these contain fluoride, which helps to prevent decay.”
Foods that contribute to healthy teeth include milk, cheese, nuts, chicken and other meats, as they contain calcium and phosphorous, which aid in the natural replacement of minerals in the enamel of your teeth. Apples, pears and other crunchy fruit and vegetables increase saliva flow, washing away food particles and bacteria, massaging your gums and thereby increasing blood flow which improves gum health.
Dental hygiene is vital to oral health. Brush and floss your teeth twice daily and visit your dentist at least twice a year. Make a dental appointment immediately if you have persistent bad breath, gums that are receding, overly sensitive, swollen or bleeding abscesses or pus in your gums or around your teeth, or loose or shifting teeth.
Periodontal risk factors include:
Dr Hira says that treatment for periodontal disease aims to control the infection and prevent it from spreading.
“Treatment options include the use of medicated mouthwashes that are specifically formulated to kill the offending bacteria in your mouth, specifically prescribed medication and deep cleaning in the form of scaling and planning. Surgical treatment, such as flap surgery and bone and tissue grafts, may also be performed in certain periodontal cases.”
Issued by: Martina Nicholson Associates (MNA) on behalf of Medicross
Contact : Martina Nicholson, Graeme Swinney, Sarah Wilson or Meggan Saville
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It is well known that heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias) occur in adults, but few are aware that it is a significant problem among many South African children as well. Children may be born with a heart disorder that causes electrical and functional problems in the heart and remain unaware into adulthood that they have a potentially dangerous health problem.
“There needs to be much greater awareness of heart rhythm disorders and congenital heart disease, which is a common birth defect occurring in children and can cause problems with the efficient functioning of the heart,” says Dr Adele Greyling, a paediatric cardiologist who practises at Netcare Greenacres Hospital in Port Elizabeth. She was speaking during World Heart Rhythm Week, which runs from 4 to 10 June 2018.
Pic: Dr Adele Greyling, an Eastern Cape paediatric cardiologist and heart rhythm specialist who practises at Netcare Greenacres Hospital in Port Elizabeth. She believes there needs to be greater awareness of heart rhythm disorders and congenital heart disease, which is a common birth defect occurring in children and can cause problems with the efficient functioning of the heart
Dr Greyling, who is the only paediatric cardiologist in the country to have been specifically trained in electrophysiology − the study of electrical problems of the heart and heart rhythm disorders – says that many children with congenital heart defects go undiagnosed and take these conditions into adulthood. She says that untreated congenital heart defects and arrhythmias may be detrimental to health and in some cases even result in heart failure.
“It has been estimated that about four out of every 1 000 babies are born with inherited heart defects, which provides some idea of the extent of the challenge posed by this condition within the Eastern Cape and nationally,” adds Dr Greyling.
“World Heart Rhythm Week provides a good opportunity to improve knowledge of the problem among all sectors of the population including patients, parents and primary healthcare providers. We need to equip people with the necessary knowledge to be able to identify inherited heart problems and heart rhythm disorders, and to know when and where to obtain help.”
The theme of World Heart Rhythm Week 2018 is ‘Take Fainting to Heart’, as fainting can be an indication that one is suffering from a heart rhythm disorder, and should not be ignored. Dr Greyling says that other symptoms may include heart palpitations, dizziness, light-headedness, discomfort in the chest, or general weakness. A child with an inherited heart rhythm disorder may fail to thrive.
“It has been suggested that some 55 children out of every 100 000 suffer from heart rhythm disorders internationally, and our incidence here in South Africa is likely to echo this. The most common of these are supraventricular tachycardias, which is an electrical problem in the upper chambers of the heart,” notes Dr Greyling, who is accredited as an electrophysiologist by the Cardiac Arrhythmia Society of South Africa.
“Heart damage and rhythm disorders may be caused by a number factors including certain infections and rheumatic heart disease, but heart rhythm problems are particularly common among those born with a complex congenital, or inherited, heart defect.
“A child may, for example, be born with an inherited defect such as a hole in the heart that may cause the heart to function improperly, or with an extra electrical pathway in their heart that might cause heart rhythm disturbances,” she explains.
“Tragically, although many of these inherited heart defects can be relatively easily corrected with a minimally invasive catheter procedure, even in the very youngest of babies, the condition often goes undetected for years.
“We are finding that in the Eastern Cape, as well as nationally, there is a growing population of patients with inherited heart conditions surviving to adulthood due to improved surgical care, which poses unique challenges and a higher incidence of arrhythmias.”
Dr Greyling, who also practises in the state sector in addition to Netcare Greenacres Hospital, says that while the catheters and devices such as pacemakers often need to be smaller for children, the principles and physiology of treating heart rhythm disorders in children are similar to those in adults.
Therefore, cardiologists who have specialised in electrophysiology for adults can and do treat children with rhythm disorders, and likewise Dr Greyling, as a paediatric cardiologist who has super-specialised in heart rhythm disorders, also sometimes treats adults with inherited heart defects and arrhythmia.
Dr Greyling and her team perform interventions to repair structural heart defects, electrophysiology procedures such as cardiac ablations, which involve correcting electrical heart problems and structural abnormalities, and also implant pacemakers and defibrillators.
According to Dr Greyling, each patient is completely different and treatment depends entirely on the nature of their specific problem. “At Netcare Greenacres Hospital we are fortunate to have a team of cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons who work together to resolve complex heart problems in children and adults. Sometimes we may need to repair structural defects before addressing the rhythm disorder, at other times a simple ablation procedure can resolve an electrical problem. Having experience in congenital heart disease is thus most useful when dealing with heart rhythm disorders in patients with inherited heart disease.”
Asked if the fields of paediatric cardiology and heart rhythm disorders receive sufficient attention in South Africa, she said that the short answer was “no”. “We do not have enough paediatric cardiologists, adult cardiologists or electrophysiologists, let alone paediatric and congenital electrophysiologists for the patient burden. Many towns in South Africa have no cardiologists at all and Netcare Greenacres Hospital is the only private unit in the Eastern Cape to offer both paediatric cardiology and electrophysiology services.”
Initially working as a paediatrician at Netcare Greenacres Hospital, Dr Greying qualified as paediatric cardiologist in 2014. She realised there was great need for specialists trained in electrophysiology and completed a fellowship in electrophysiology in Belgium. She has trained extensively abroad and under well-known Bay paediatric cardiologist, Dr Lungile Pepeta, who also has rooms at Netcare Greenacres Hospital. Also part of the heart rhythm team at the hospital is cardiologist and cardiac electrophysiologist Dr Neil Hendricks, who has been practising there since 2014.
Netcare Greenacres Hospital general manager, André Bothma, says that Dr Greyling makes an invaluable contribution not only to the multidisciplinary cardiac team at the hospital, but also to heart medicine in the Eastern Cape province. “South Africa’s first ever paediatric cardiologist to also specialise in heart rhythm disorders, and the country’s first woman electrophysiologist, Dr Greyling’s skills and wonderful passion for medicine have benefitted many patients.
“Dr Greyling is an inspirational cardiologist who is determined to contribute to tackling the twin problems of congenital heart disorders and rhythm disorders in the Nelson Mandela Bay area and Eastern Cape province. Netcare Greenacres Hospital cardiac centre is most grateful to offer her services and those of the other cardiac specialists practising at the hospital,” concludes Bothma.
Issued by: MNA on behalf of Netcare Greenacres Hospital
Contact: Martina Nicholson, Graeme Swinney, Meggan Saville and Estene Lotriet-Vorster
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While it is commonly believed that heart failure and other chronic diseases such as diabetes only affect middle-aged and older people, risk factors can develop from much earlier in life, and younger people should start caring for their health as early as possible.
This was the message from Jacques du Plessis, managing director of Netcare’s Hospital Division, during National Heart Awareness Month. Netcare, in partnership with Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres and supported by Roche Accu-Chek, is bringing ‘better heart care to the people’ by offering free glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure (hypertension) and BMI screenings at selected Netcare Hospitals and Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres on Friday, 25 and Saturday, 26 September 2009.
According to Du Plessis, many South Africans are increasingly engaging in habits that are harmful to their heart or cardiovascular system, such as eating foods rich in saturated fats and/or smoking. Stress is also very prevalent in today’s fast-moving world. Long-term exposure to all these factors may cause damage to the cardiovascular system over time and could eventually lead to a heart attack or stroke.
This is why it is so important to start practicing habits that are healthy for the cardiovascular system early in life, preferably even from birth, he says. It is also why selected Netcare Hospitals, Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres and Roche Accu-Chek have got together to offer the free screenings to members of the public.
‘A heart attack or stroke is so often caused by unhealthy living habits,’ says Du Plessis. ‘High blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes and other chronic illnesses are often the result of eating fatty foods over the years and living with high levels of stress. A lack of exercise - being a ‘couch potato’ - and smoking do not help. All of these are behaviours that are under our own control, and we all need to take responsibility for our own health.’
This year the ambassador for the free screening drive, or the ‘The Healthy Heart Family Drive’ as it is called, is Wally Katzke, who achieved fame for being the first South African to have his open-heart surgery broadcast on national television in 2008. The event, during which the public got to ‘Meet Wally’s heart’, was profoundly educational for many viewers and Wally’s heart became something of a celebrity!
Wally Katzke urges family members to support one another in their efforts to reach better heart health. He says he could never have made it through his ordeal without the support of his family, and wishes he had known more about how to prevent heart disease earlier in his life.
‘Parents should be educating children on the importance of a good diet and healthy living and encourage their school-going children to be screened too on the 25th and 26th September,’ he suggests. ‘For couples concerned about their health and well-being a visit to the closest participating Netcare Hospital or Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres Centre can be turned into a meaningful and life-enhancing project. It really is better to prevent yourself from having a heart attack rather than having to deal with the consequences of having one. Ask me, I should know!’
‘One out of every four South Africans between the ages of 15 and 64 suffer from hypertension or what is more commonly known as high blood pressure, a major cause of heart failure,’ adds Dr Charmaine Pailman, managing director of the Netcare Primary Healthcare Division, of which Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres and Prime Cure form a part. ‘Throughout the Western world it has become the number one medical complaint and in South Africa it is the third highest cause of death amongst adults.
‘High blood pressure generally leads to three major illnesses, namely strokes, heart and kidney disease - all of which can be fatal. They can, however, be prevented by timeous diagnosis and intervention,’ she observes. ‘But the sad reality is that most people suffering from hypertension have few symptoms, if any, and they are often totally unaware of this illness. Those suffering from high blood pressure can, however, take comfort in the knowledge that research has shown most strokes and heart attacks could have been prevented by a change in lifestyle and by the use of medication.
That is exactly why regular medical check-ups are so important in the early detection and treatment of high blood pressure.’
Another important risk factor in causing heart disease is raised cholesterol, according to Dr Pailman. Many South Africans are genetically predisposed towards raised cholesterol. For instance, in the United States and Europe, raised cholesterol affects one in 500 people, while in South Africa it affects about one in 80 people in certain population groups.
Statistics have also shown that South African women, who are traditionally less susceptible to heart disease than males, are nevertheless highly vulnerable, with one in four women succumbing to coronary heart disease by the age of 60.
Dr Pailman says that raised cholesterol as a risk factor for heart disease is made worse by lack of exercise, unhealthy eating habits and smoking. ‘There are people with such dangerously high levels of blood cholesterol that diet and lifestyle changes alone will be ineffective in lowering cholesterol sufficiently.
‘Doctors may then resort to prescribing one of the cholesterol-lowering drugs. In all instances of high cholesterol, however, doctors recommend lifestyle changes such as cutting out most fats from the diet, stopping smoking, and starting a moderate exercise programme.’
Dr Pailman suggests that many people have no idea of their cholesterol levels or the state of their arteries and that their first indication of a problem may well be a heart attack.
She recommends that a cholesterol test should be taken at least once by everyone over the age of 35, and regularly monitored in patients with a known history of high cholesterol and blood lipid disorders.
Free screenings will be held at selected Netcare Hospitals and Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres nationwide between 08:00 and 18:00 on Friday, 25 September and between 08:30 and 13:00 on Saturday, 26 September 2009. For more information on the nationwide Netcare Hospital and Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres participation in the ‘Healthy Heart Family Drive’, log on to www.netcare.co.za.
The 10-point Netcare and Medicross healthy heart plan
As part of a nationwide outreach by Netcare and Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres the group will be running an aggressive print and radio campaign between 22 and 26 September, 2009.
Issued by Martina Nicholson Associates (MNA) on behalf of Netcare and Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres.
For further information kindly contact: Martina Nicholson or Graeme Swinney on (011) 469-3016 or email firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
We often live our lives without much consideration for our health until it is too late. However, by making a few lifestyle changes you could prevent or reduce the risk of contracting a range of diseases.
This is the message from Dr Jess Bouwer of Medicross Edenvale Medical and Dental Centre on the eve of Healthy Lifestyles Awareness Day 2013. Dr Bouwer says: “We should spend more time caring about our well-being to attain and maintain good health.” He offers a few simple pointers on how to do this.
“To establish a solid base for any lifestyle changes you undertake, find out from your doctor what health screenings he or she would recommend after taking your medical and family history, lifestyle and age into account,” says Dr Bouwer. Some of the common preventative screenings include:
Depending on the status of your health, your doctor will advise if you need to have certain tests done more regularly.
Diets to live for
“Consider what you eat and drink carefully as it can have a vital impact on your body running smoothly and energetically,” advises Dr Bouwer. Eating healthily can also reduce the risk of high blood pressure and slow the progress of Alzheimer's disease, he adds.
Dr Bouwer says that by adopting the following nutrition advice you’ll be off to a good start:
Dr Bouwer advises that regular aerobic exercise aids oxygen circulation, food digestion and toxin elimination, strengthens your musculoskeletal system and generally bolsters your immunity. It also reduces the risk of various lifestyle diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, he adds.
“I recommend to all my patients that they undertake at least half an hour of solid aerobic exercise such as jogging, skipping, tennis, brisk walking or dancing no less than four times a week.” For older and less active patients it is still good to take walks at least four times a week.
Like exercise, sleep is vital to re-energising your body, says Dr Bouwer. A study published in 2012 found that less than six hours sleep a night is one of the best predictors for on-the-job burnout, he observes. Dr Bouwer recommends that adults get seven to nine hours of shut-eye per night, school children ten to 11 hours, toddlers 12 to 14 hours and infants about 14 to 15 hours plus every day.
Relaxation and play
Taking time out regularly to lower your stress levels so that your mind and body can properly unwind is crucial, suggests Dr Bouwer. “Nature is a healer, so go hiking, interact with animals and plants, swim in the sea or run on the beach. Enjoy time with your family, listen to soothing music, take up yoga or meditation and go for regular therapeutic massages.”
Regardless of your age or how long you’ve smoked, quitting can help you live longer and improve your health, says Dr Bouwer. As cancer.org points out: People who stop smoking before the age of 50 cut their risk of dying in the next 15 years by 50% compared with those who continue smoking. “Ex-smokers enjoy a higher quality of life. They have fewer illnesses like colds and the flu, lower rates of bronchitis and pneumonia, and feel healthier than people who still smoke.”
Issued by : Martina Nicholson Associates (MNA) on behalf of Medicross Family Medical and Dental Centres
Contact: Martina Nicholson, Graeme Swinney or Monique Vanek
Telephone: (011) 469 3016
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Netcare Christiaan Barnard Memorial Hospital will be embracing Heart Awareness Month this Friday, 26 September 2014, with heart health talks and health screenings between 10am and 2pm, all of which will be for free to interested members of the public.
Dr Suzette Fourie, cardiologist at Netcare Christiaan Barnard Memorial Hospital, will be giving advice on how healthy living can promote a healthy heart and Dr John Stanfliet, chemical pathologist, will talk about the importance of having regular cholesterol checks done. The health screenings, which are sponsored by PathCare Pathology, will include cholesterol testing, glucose testing, blood pressure screening, dietary advice and counselling services.
"Your general health and heart health go hand in hand, as people who maintain a healthy lifestyle usually have a healthy heart. With cardiovascular disease being a leading cause of death in our country, it is extremely important that we look after our hearts," notes Dr Fourie.
Dr Fourie shares her top 10 tips for a healthy heart:
Kick the habit – Smokers are twice as likely to have heart attacks as non-smokers as smoking reduces the amount of oxygen your blood can carry to your heart. Do your heart and your health a favour and give up the smokes today!
Eat a heart-healthy diet – Fill your fridge with vegetables, fruit, wholegrains and oily fish to keep your body healthy. Limit your intake of fast foods, processed foods and products high in sugar and saturated fats.
Know your family history – Genetics also play a factor in matters of the heart. If a close relative, such as a sibling or parent, has heart disease, then your risk is increased. Ensure you schedule regular visits with your doctor to keep an eye on your health.
Get active – Remember that your heart is a muscle so it needs to 'stay in shape'. Exercise at least five times a week for half an hour at a time. Make sure you choose an exercise that you enjoy so you stay motivated, or work out with a partner.
Cut the salt – Limit your salt intake to one teaspoon per day. Remember that many foods contain high amounts of sodium even without you reaching for the saltshaker.
Drink less alcohol – An excess of alcohol can damage the heart muscle so limit your intake to a few units a week. Binge drinking is particularly dangerous to your heart.
Know your numbers – Have your blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol tested annually so that you can take action if necessary to keep your health on track. Your doctor will be able to advise you on how to get those numbers to where they should be.
Maintain a healthy weight – Your chance of having a heart attack increases by a third if you are overweight and by 100% if you are obese, so start making changes to your diet and activity levels today!
Sleep tight – Get at least seven to eight hours of sleep each night so that your heart has time to rest too. Also ask your bed partner to be on the lookout for sleep apnoea, a sleeping disorder where sufferers temporarily stop breathing, as this can contribute to the risk of a heart attack.
Don't stress – Stress can be a significant trigger for heart episodes, whether the stress be work-related or personal. Stress also often goes hand in hand with an unhealthy diet, more smoking and more alcohol intake. Ensure that you set aside time to do relaxing activities so that the stress does not completely overwhelm you.
"Looking after your heart is one of the most important things you can do for your health. By taking note of the above tips, you will put yourself on the right track to a healthy heart," says Dr Fourie.
Anyone interested in attending Netcare Christiaan Barnard Memorial Hospital's Heart Awareness Day should please contact Michelle Norris on 021 480 6125. All health screenings will be done on a first come, first served basis.
Issued by: Martina Nicholson Associates (MNA) on behalf of Netcare Christiaan Memorial Hospital
Contact : Martina Nicholson, Graeme Swinney, Sarah Beswick and Jillian Penaluna
Telephone: (011) 469 3016
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As South Africa’s population becomes increasingly urbanised and less active, serious heart conditions are on the rise and reaching “alarming proportions”, according to Dr Anchen Laubscher, medical director of the Netcare Hospital Division. “One in three men and one in four women will have a heart condition of one kind or another by the time they reach the age of 60. This avoidable health crisis will increasingly strain our healthcare system unless individuals take ownership of their health and lifestyle choices,” she says.
Commenting during National Heart Awareness Month, Dr Laubscher says in recent years South Africans have become more sedentary. We are exercising less and our diets have deteriorated as we are consuming more and more processed and ‘junk food. This is bad news for our health in general and more specifically, for our hearts. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes and obesity have increased dramatically,” Dr Laubscher points out.
Dr Laubscher adds that being overweight (generally measured by ones Body Mass Index), having high blood pressure (hypertension), with uncontrolled high blood sugar levels or high cholesterol, all put us at risk of heart disease. “Most people are unaware that they are developing cardiovascular disease. During the early stages, complications of risk factors such as diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure develop without any warning. . This is why high blood pressure is known as the ‘silent killer’,” she cautions.
Because there may be no indications that we are developing heart disease, we should discuss our risk factors with our doctor, particularly if there is a history of heart disease or any of the afore mentioned risk factors in the family. According to Laubscher, we should have our blood pressure checked at least annually if the results of a test are within normal limits, or more often if the results are borderline or high. “When a condition such as high blood pressure is detected early, timeous and effective treatment can reverse the progression of heart disease and make a world of difference to the health of the person involved,” she says.
Another common disease that can affect the heart and cardiovascular system is coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is usually caused by atherosclerosis, which is a build-up of fatty deposits of cholesterol and other materials on the walls of the arteries. The arteries become narrowed by the fatty deposits, which restricts the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart and other vital organs such as the brain and kidneys.
“This is potentially a very dangerous medical condition as it can place a great deal of strain on the heart. A heart attack will result if an artery is blocked by the fatty deposits. Some people have a genetic predisposition to atherosclerosis and an unhealthy lifestyle increases the risk,” notes Laubscher
Heart disease often develops in people who smoke, eat foods high in saturated fats, have high stress levels and get little exercise. These are modifiable risk factors which can be addressed by improving your lifestyle. Not only will this benefit your heart, but will benefit your health in general.
Laubscher advises all South Africans to adopt a diet that is low in saturated fats and rich in foods such as fish, raw nuts, vegetables and fruit. Those who smoke should stop while heavy drinkers should limit their drinking. Even a moderate amount of physical exercise every week has been shown to have numerous benefits.
Managing director of the Netcare hospital division, Jacques du Plessis, says we all need to take responsibility for protecting our heart’s health. “Don’t wait for the consequences of your lifestyle choices to impact your health negatively. Start choosing the healthier route now,” he adds.
Du Plesssis says this National Heart Awareness Month Netcare wants to remind all South Africans how important it is that they take the necessary steps to maintain their cardio-vascular health. “For this reason many of our facilities around the country are conducting awareness campaigns,” He adds.
Issued by: Martina Nicholson Associates (MNA) on behalf of Netcare
Contact: Martina Nicholson, Graeme Swinney or Sarah Beswick
Telephone: (011) 469 3016
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The journey towards motherhood is truly remarkable. As a mother-to-be, you can empower yourself to make the most of your pregnancy by being informed about and being prepared for the significant changes your body will go through, as well as the fluctuating emotions that you might experience. This will help you to take the best possible health decisions for you and your baby.
Netcare provides the following tips:
Most of all, enjoy the miracle of the life growing inside you!
Issued by: Martina Nicholson Associates (MNA) on behalf of Netcare
Contact: Martina Nicholson, Graeme Swinney, Sarah Beswick or Jillian Penaluna
Telephone: (011) 469 3016
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com